Virus Imaging

Select by virus name
About Images
Art Gallery
Covers Gallery
ICTV 8th Color Plates
PS10 Screen Saver   

Virus Structure Tutorials

Triangulation Number
Topography Maps 3D


Virology Links

In the News

- News -
- Video -
- Blogs -
 * Virology Highlights
- Flu & H1N1 - (CDC|WHO)

Journal Contents

Science
Nature
Nature Structural & Molecular Biology

Structure & Assembly (J.Virol)
Journal of Virology
J. General Virology
Retrovirology
Virology
Virology Journal
Virus Genes
Viruses

Educational Resouces


Video Lectures  NEW 
TextBook  NEW 
Educational Links
Educational Kids

Legacy

Archived Web Papers

Jean-Yves Sgro
Inst. for Mol.Virology
731B Bock Labs
1525 Linden Drive Madison, WI 53706

Current Papers in Structure and Assembly (Journal of Virology)

Journal of Virology Structure and Assembly

  • Stability of Cucumber Necrosis Virus at the Quasi-6-Fold Axis Affects Zoospore Transmission [Structure and Assembly]

  • Cucumber necrosis virus (CNV) is a member of the genus Tombusvirus and has a monopartite positive-sense RNA genome. CNV is transmitted in nature via zoospores of the fungus Olpidium bornovanus. As with other members of the Tombusvirus genus, the CNV capsid swells when exposed to alkaline pH and EDTA. We previously demonstrated that a P73G mutation blocks the virus from zoospore transmission while not significantly affecting replication in plants (K. Kakani, R. Reade, and D. Rochon, J Mol Biol 338:507nndash;517, 2004, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmb.2004.03.008). P73 lies immediately adjacent to a putative zinc binding site (M. Li et al., J Virol 87:12166nndash;12175, 2013, https://doi.org/10.1128/JVI.01965-13) that is formed by three icosahedrally related His residues in the N termini of the C subunit at the quasi-6-fold axes. To better understand how this buried residue might affect vector transmission, we determined the cryo-electron microscopy structure of wild-type CNV in the native and swollen state and of the transmission-defective mutant, P73G, under native conditions. With the wild-type CNV, the swollen structure demonstrated the expected expansion of the capsid. However, the zinc binding region at the quasi-6-fold at the bbeta;-annulus axes remained intact. By comparison, the zinc binding region of the P73G mutant, even under native conditions, was markedly disordered, suggesting that the bbeta;-annulus had been disrupted and that this could destabilize the capsid. This was confirmed with pH and urea denaturation experiments in conjunction with electron microscopy analysis. We suggest that the P73G mutation affects the zinc binding and/or the bbeta;-annulus, making it more fragile under neutral/basic pH conditions. This, in turn, may affect zoospore transmission.

    IMPORTANCE Cucumber necrosis virus (CNV), a member of the genus Tombusvirus, is transmitted in nature via zoospores of the fungus Olpidium bornovanus. While a number of plant viruses are transmitted via insect vectors, little is known at the molecular level as to how the viruses are recognized and transmitted. As with many spherical plant viruses, the CNV capsid swells when exposed to alkaline pH and EDTA. We previously demonstrated that a P73G mutation that lies inside the capsid immediately adjacent to a putative zinc binding site (Li et al., J Virol 87:12166nndash;12175, 2013, https://doi.org/10.1128/JVI.01965-13) blocks the virus from zoospore transmission while not significantly affecting replication in plants (K. Kakani, R. Reade, and D. Rochon, J Mol Biol 338:507nndash;517, 2004, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmb.2004.03.008). Here, we show that the P73G mutant is less stable than the wild type, and this appears to be correlated with destabilization of the bbeta;-annulus at the icosahedral 3-fold axes. Therefore, the bbeta;-annulus appears not to be essential for particle assembly but is necessary for interactions with the transmission vector.

  • Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Maintain High Levels of Infectivity in the Complete Absence of Mucin-Type O-Glycosylation [Structure and Assembly]

  • A highly conserved threonine near the C terminus of gp120 of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) was investigated for its contributions to envelope protein function and virion infectivity. When this highly conserved Thr residue was substituted with anything other than serine (the other amino acid that can accept O-glycosylation), the resulting virus was noninfectious. We found that this Thr was critical for the association of gp120 with the virion and that amino acid substitution increased the amount of dissociated gp120 in the cell culture supernatant. When HIV virions were generated in cells overexpressing polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 1 (GalNAcT1), viral infectivity was increased 2.5-fold compared to that of virus produced in wild-type HEK293T cells; infectivity was increased 8-fold when the Thr499Ser mutant was used. These infectivity enhancements were not observed when GalNAcT3 was used. Using HEK293T knockout cell lines totally devoid of the ability to perform O-linked glycosylation, we demonstrated production of normal levels of virions and normal levels of infectivity in the complete absence of O-linked carbohydrate. Our data indicate that O-glycosylation is not necessary for the natural replication cycle of HIV and SIV. Nonetheless, it remains theoretically possible that the repertoire of GalNAc transferase isoforms in natural target cells for HIV and SIV in vivo could result in O-glycosylation of the threonine residue in question and that this could boost the infectivity of virions beyond the levels seen in the absence of such O-glycosylation.

    IMPORTANCE Approximately 50% of the mass of the gp120 envelope glycoprotein of both HIV and SIV is N-linked carbohydrate. One of the contributions of this N-linked carbohydrate is to shield conserved peptide sequences from recognition by humoral immunity. This N-linked glycosylation is one of the reasons that primary isolates of HIV and SIV are so heavily resistant to antibody-mediated neutralization. Much less studied is any potential contribution from O-linked glycosylation. The literature on this topic to date is somewhat confusing and ambiguous. Our studies described in this report demonstrate unambiguously that O-linked glycosylation is not necessary for the natural replication cycle of HIV and SIV. However, the door is not totally closed because of the diversity of numerous GalNAc transferase enzymes that initiate O-linked carbohydrate attachment and the theoretical possibility that natural target cells for HIV and SIV in vivo could potentially complete such O-linked carbohydrate attachment to further increase infectivity.