|Virology Journal - Latest Articles|
Background: The CD8 Antiviral Factor (CAF) suppresses viral transcription from the HIV-1 Long Terminal Repeat (LTR) promoter in a non-cytolytic manner. However, the region on the LTR upon which CAF acts is unknown. Our objective was to determine the region on the LTR upon which CAF acts to suppress HIV-1 transcription. Methods: Serial deletions of the LTR from the 5aapos; end and inactivating point mutations were made. Results: Serial deletions of the LTR from the 5aapos; end indicated the importance of a short ~120 bp segment, containing the 3 SpI sites, CATA box (used by HIV-1 instead of the TATA box) and TAR region, in the suppressive process. Introduction of deletions or inactivating point mutations in the SpI sites or deletion of the TAR region did not abolish CAF-mediated transcriptional suppression. Yet, CAF-mediated transcriptional suppression was still retained in the HIV-1 CATA-TAR segment. Conclusion: CAF is able to suppress transcription from the LTR lacking all the elements upstream of the CATA box. Our results suggest that the HIV-1 CATA box may be responsible for CAF-mediated suppression of transcription from the HIV-1 LTR.
Background: Although national surveillance programs are in place to monitor norovirus epidemiology, the emergence of a new strains and the genetic diversity among genotypes can be challenging for clinical laboratories. This study evaluated the analytical and clinical performance characteristics of one real-time RT-PCR and two end-point RT-PCRs commonly used in microbiology laboratories. Methods: Lower limit of detection (LoD) was determined using 10-fold dilutions of noroviruses belonging to different genotypes. The clinical performance of the real-time and end-point RT-PCRs was assessed in parallel using nucleic acids extracted from 186 stool specimens. Results: The real-time RT-PCR was highly sensitive and specific for the detection of norovirus genotypes that are currently circulating in Canada. In contrast, the two end-point RT-PCRs displayed poor analytical sensitivity or complete failure to detect certain norovirus genotypes, which was correlated to sequence mismatches in the primer-binding sites. In an attempt to improve norovirus detection with the end-point RT-PCRs, both assays were processed concurrently and detection from either assay was considered a positive result. Concurrent testing resulted in only a modest increase in clinical sensitivity (75.0%) compared to each assay alone (62.5% and 71.9%). However, the false positivity rate increased from 1.98% and 3.36% for the assays alone to 5.47% with concurrent testing. Conclusions: This study emphasizes the benefits of a real-time method and provides support for routine surveillance to monitor norovirus epidemiology and ongoing proficiency testing to ensure detection of circulating norovirus genotypes.
Background: The influenza A virus NS1 protein is a virulence factor and an antagonist of host cell innate immune responses. During virus infection NS1 protein has several functions both in the nucleus and in the cytoplasm and its intracellular localization is regulated by one or two nuclear localization signals (NLS) and a nuclear export signal (NES). Methods: In order to investigate the role of NS1 NES in intracellular localization, virus life cycle and host interferon responses, we generated recombinant A/Udorn/72 viruses harboring point mutations in the NES sequence. Results: NS1 NES was found to be inactivated by several of the mutations resulting in nuclear retention of NS1 at late stages of infection confirming that this sequence is a bona fide functional NES. Some of the mutant viruses showed reduced growth properties in cell culture, inability to antagonize host cell interferon production and increased p-IRF3 levels, but no clear correlation between these phenotypes and NS1 localization could be made. Impaired activation of Akt phosphorylation by the replication-deficient viruses indicates possible disruption of NS1-p85beta interaction by mutations in the NES region. Conclusion: We conclude that mutations within the NS1 NES result in impairment of several NS1 functions which extends further from the NES site being only involved in regulating the nuclear-cytoplasmic trafficking of NS1.
Background: Due to the high rate of asymptomatic infections an advanced screening assay is of prompt importance to be used for the clinical diagnosis of HCV. Early detection of anti HCV is the first step in the management of chronic hepatitis and in the selection of patients needing treatments. In the current study we have first time used the advanced serological diagnostic technique i.e. Chemiluminescent Microparticle Immuno Assay (CMIA) for the detection of HCV infection in Peshawar Pakistan. Methods: A total number of 982 samples were collected among the general public belongs to the different areas of district Peshawar. The samples were centrifuged at high speed to obtain a clear supernatant serum. All the samples were run on Architect system a fully automated immuno analyzer CMIA base technology. Results: Out of 982 blood samples analyzed in this study, 160 (15.9%) were confirmed to be positive for active HCV infection. The overall prevalence was found to be 13.4%. Gender wise prevalence was recorded to be higher in male (19.1%) than female (12.7%). The age group 21-30 years was identified as the highest risk group among the studied population. Conclusion: Among the tested samples, overall prevalence of active HCV infection was found to be 13.4% in the general population of Peshawar Pakistan. The young middle aged population of this region was at higher risk of HCV ailments compared to the other age groups.
Background: Arenavirus Junin is the causative agent of Argentine hemorrhagic fever. Limited information is available concerning the pathogenesis of this human disease, especially the pathogenesis of acute and late neurological symptoms. Methods: In our study we present for the first time cDNA microarray profile of human astrocytes infected with the virulent strain of Junin virus. Transcriptional profiling was confirmed by quantitative real-time RT-PCR and cytokine/chemokine/growth factor assay. Results: We demonstrated the impact of virus infection on immune/inflammatory response/interferon signaling and apoptosis. Pro-apoptotic response and amplification with time of pro-inflammatory cascade of human astrocytes suggested neurodegenerative dysfunctional reactive astrogliosis in response to Junin virus infection. Conclusion: Our results suggest potential pathogenic role of astroglial cells in the development of neurological symptoms and late neurological syndrome during Argentine hemorrhagic fever.
Background: Oral mucosa is frequently exposed to Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection and irradiation due to dental radiography. During radiotherapy for oral cancer, the surrounding clinically normal tissues are also irradiated. This prompted us to study the effects of HSV-1 infection and irradiation on viability and apoptosis of oral epithelial cells. Methods: Immortal gingival keratinocyte (HMK) cells were infected with HSV-1 at a low multiplicity of infection (MOI) and irradiated with 2 Gy 24 hours post infection. The cells were then harvested at 24, 72 and 144 hours post irradiation for viability assays and qRT-PCR analyses for the apoptosis-related genes caspases 3, 8, and 9, bcl-2, NFκB1, and viral gene VP16. Mann–Whitney U-test was used for statistical calculations. Results: Irradiation improved the cell viability at 144 hours post irradiation (P = 0.05), which was further improved by HSV-1 infection at MOI of 0.00001 (P = 0.05). Simultaneously, the combined effects of infection at MOI of 0.0001 and irradiation resulted in upregulation in NFκB1 (P = 0.05). The combined effects of irradiation and HSV infection also significantly downregulated the expression of caspases 3, 8, and 9 at 144 hours (P = 0.05) whereas caspase 3 and 8 significantly upregulated in non-irradiated, HSV-infected cells as compared to uninfected controls (P = 0.05). Infection with 0.0001 MOI downregulated bcl-2 in non-irradiated cells but was upregulated by 27% after irradiation when compared to non-irradiated infected cells (P = 0.05). Irradiation had no effect on HSV-1 shedding or HSV gene expression at 144 hours. Conclusions: HSV-1 infection may improve the viability of immortal cells after irradiation. The effect might be related to inhibition of apoptosis.
Background: The A20 ubiquitin-editing enzyme is a target of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and also plays a key role in regulating the NF-κB signaling pathway. NF-κB activity is increased during human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection and HCMV appears to be adapted to this change. To better understand the regulation of NF-κB signaling during HCMV infection, we investigated how A20 expression is controlled during HCMV infection. Methods: The expression level of A20 in human fibroblast cells infected with HCMV or UV-inactivated virus (UV-HCMV) was measured by immunoblot analysis, cell staining, and quantitative real-time PCR. Changes of histone modifications on the A20 promoter were determined by chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. Lentiviral vectors were used to knockdown A20 in fibroblast cells. Results: A20 expression was increased at early times after HCMV infection. This increase of the A20 protein level was promoted by viral gene expression under low viral load conditions. The viral IE1 protein, which is known to activate NF-κB, increased the A20 promoter activity through the upstream NF-κB sites in reporter assays, suggesting that IE1 is at least partly involved in A20 induction. Analysis of A20 expression with a high viral load demonstrated that the A20 regulation by HCMV was biphasic; both A20 protein and mRNA levels were increased at the early stage of infection, but decreased at the late stage. Under high viral load conditions, A20 upregulation was more profound with UV-HCMV than with HCMV, indicating a role of the viral gene product(s) in limiting A20 induction. Consistently, more histone modifications for euchromatin were found on the A20 promoter during UV-HCMV infection than with HCMV infection. A20 knockdown by shRNA reduced HCMV growth. Conclusion: These results suggest that the biphasic regulation of A20 expression may be important for productive HCMV infection.
Background: This study investigated infection status and distribution of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) serum markers in hospitalized children from the Wenzhou region. Methods: This survey was performed on 10,147 hospitalized children from birth to 14 years of age in Southeastern China (Wenzhou region) from March 2010 to March 2013. IgM and IgG antibodies to HCMV were quantitatively detected by chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA). HCMV IgM or IgG detection rates, concentration, and distribution in various age groups were retrospectively analyzed. Results: In this study of hospitalized children, the overall rates of HCMV IgM+ and IgG+ were 10.8% (1,099/10,147) and 83.0% (8,425/10,147), respectively. The lowest HCMV IgM+ rate (1.0%, P llt; 0.001) was observed in the group of patients llt;28 days of age whereas the highest HCMV IgM+ rate (19.9%, P llt; 0.001) occurred in the 28 days ~ 5 months old group. However, the concentrations of HCMV specific IgM in all age groups were not significantly different (P ggt; 0.05). The HCMV IgG+ rate was highest in the llt;28 days group (98.1%, P llt; 0.001). The 28 days ~ 5 months old group had the lowest HCMV specific IgG concentrations (median, 133.9 AU/mL, P llt; 0.001). Among 1,099 HCMV IgM+ children, 405 (36.9%) were diagnosed with respiratory infections which pneumonia accounted for 18.2% (200/1,099) of the total population. However, children with respiratory infections had the lowest HCMV IgG concentrations (median, 161.1 AU/mL, P llt; 0.05). Conclusions: HCMV specific antibody responses are very common in hospitalized children with respiratory infection in Wenzhou region. Protection against HCMV airway infection needs greater emphasis and further studies will be helpful to reveal the role of HCMV in children respiratory disease.
Background: HIV-1 Vif is essential for virus replication in natural target cells such as T cells and macrophages. Vif recruits a ubiquitin ligase to degrade restrictive APOBEC3 proteins. APOBEC3G is one of the most potent retroviral restriction factors targeted by Vif and, as such, the Vif-APOBEC3G interaction has emerged as a promising HIV-1 therapeutic target. Methods: 20,000 small molecules were used in live-cell screens for those that preserve EGFP-APOBEC3G fluorescence and luciferase-APOBEC3G luminescence in the presence of HIV-1 Vif. Results: 2 compounds with similar core structures preserved APOBEC3G levels in the presence of Vif. 10 μM of compound restored APOBEC3G to levels sufficient for incorporation into vif-proficient virus particles and restriction of virus infectivity. Vif-dependent APOBEC3G polyubiquitination and general proteasomal activity were unaffected at the same concentration. Conclusions: The small molecules described here preserve APOBEC3G levels and activity in the presence of Vif. These molecules are starting points for further development as antiretrovirals.
Background: It is generally believed that RNA virus replicating in the cell cytoplasm would not encode microRNAs (miRNAs) due to nucleus inaccessibility. Recent studies have described cytoplasmic RNA virus genome-derived miRNAs in West Nile virus (WNV) and Dengue virus (DENV). However, naturally occurring miRNAs derived from the antigenome of a cytoplasmic RNA virus have not been described. Methods: Hepatitis A virus (HAV) was served as a model virus to investigate whether the antigenome of a cytoplasmic RNA virus would be processed into miRNAs or miRNA-like small RNAs upon infection. HAV antigenome was queried for putative miRNA precursors (pre-miRNA) with the VMir analyzer program. Mature miRNA prediction was performed using MatureBayes and Bayes-SVM-MiRNA web server v1.0. Finally, multiple experimental approaches, including cloning and sequencing-, RNAi-, plasmid-based miRNA expression- and luciferase reporter assays, were performed to identify and validate naturally occurring viral antigenome-derived miRNAs. Results: Using human HAV genotype IA (isolate H2) (HAVH2), a virally encoded miRNA-like small RNA was detected on the antigenome and named hav-miR-N1-3p. Transcription of viral pre-miRNA in KMB17 and HEK293T cells led to mature hav-miR-N1-3p production. In addition, silencing of the miRNA-processing enzyme Dicer or Drosha caused a dramatic reduction in miRNA levels. Furthermore, artificial target of hav-miR-N1-3p was silenced by synthesized viral miRNA mimics and the HAVH2 naturally-derived hav-miR-N1-3p. Conclusion: These results suggested that the antigenome of a cytoplasmic RNA virus could be processed into functional miRNAs. Our findings provide new evidence supporting the hypothesis that cytoplasmic RNA viruses naturally encode miRNAs through cellular miRNA processing machinery.