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Background: One of the major functions of Nef is in the enhancement of the infectivity of the human and simian immunodeficiency viruses (HIV and SIV, respectively). However, the detailed mechanism of the enhancement of viral infectivity by Nef remains unclear. Additionally, studies of mechanisms by which Nef enhances the infectivity of SIV are not as intensive as those of HIV-1. Methods: We generated short-lived Nef constructed by fusing Nef to a proteasome-mediated protein degradation sequence to characterize the Nef role in viral infectivity. Results: The apparent expression level of the short-lived Nef was found to be extremely lower than that of the wild-type Nef. Moreover, the expression level of the short-lived Nef increased with the treatment with a proteasome inhibitor. The infectivity of HIV-1 with the short-lived Nef was significantly lower than that with the wild-type Nef. On the other hand, the short-lived Nef enhanced the infectivity of SIVmac239, an ability observed to be interestingly equivalent to that of the wild-type Nef. The short-lived Nef was not detected in SIVmac239, but the wild-type Nef was, suggesting that the incorporation of Nef into SIVmac239 is not important for the enhancement of SIVmac239 infectivity. Conclusions: Altogether, the findings suggest that the mechanisms of infectivity enhancement by Nef are different between HIV-1 and SIVmac239. Lastly, we propose the following hypothesis: even when the expression level of a protein is extremely low, the protein may still be sufficiently functional.
Background: Fevers of unknown origin constitute a substantial disease burden in Southeast Asia. In majority of the cases, the cause of acute febrile illness is not identified. Methods: We used MassTag PCR, a multiplex assay platform, to test for the presence of 15 viral respiratory agents from 85 patients with unexplained respiratory illness representing six disease clusters that occurred in Cambodia between 2009 and 2012. Results: We detected a virus in 37 (44%) of the cases. Human rhinovirus, the virus detected most frequently, was found in both children and adults. The viruses most frequently detected in children and adults, respectively, were respiratory syncytial virus and enterovirus 68. Sequence analysis indicated that two distinct clades of enterovirus 68 were circulating during this time period. Conclusions: This is the first report of enterovirus 68 in Cambodia and contributes to the appreciation of this virus as an important respiratory pathogen.
Background: KSHV is a tumorigenic ?-herpesvirus that has been identified as the etiologic agent of Kaposi?s sarcoma (KS), a multifocal highly vascularized neoplasm that is the most common malignancy associated with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The virus encodes a constitutively active chemokine receptor homologue, vGPCR that possesses potent angiogenic and tumorigenic properties, and is critical for KSHV pathobiology. To date, a number of signaling pathways have been identified as key in mediating vGPCR oncogenic potential.FindingsIn this study, we identify a novel pathway, the Wnt/?-catenin pathway, which is dysregulated by vGPCR expression in endothelial cells. Expression of vGPCR in endothelial cells enhances the nuclear accumulation of ?-catenin, that correlates with an increase in ?-catenin transcriptional activity. Activation of ?-catenin signaling by vGPCR is dependent on the PI3K/Akt pathway, as treatment of vGPCR-expressing cells with a pharmacological inhibitor of PI3K, leads to a decreased activation of a ?-catenin-driven reporter, a significant decrease in expression of ?-catenin target genes, and reduced endothelial tube formation. Conclusions: Given the critical role of Wnt/?-catenin signaling in angiogenesis and tumorigenesis, the findings from this study suggest a novel mechanism in KSHV-induced malignancies.
Background: The outcome of a viral infection is regulated by complex interactions of viral and host factors. SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) engages and regulates several innate immune response pathways during infection. We have previously shown that the SARS-CoV Papain-like Protease (PLpro) inhibits type I interferon (IFN) by inhibiting IRF3 phosphorylation thereby blocking downstream Interferon induction. This finding prompted us to identify other potential mechanisms of inhibition of PLpro on IFN induction. Methods: We have used plasmids expressing PLpro and IRF3 including an IRF3 mutant that is constitutively active, called IRF3(5D). In these experiments we utilize transfections, chromatin immunoprecipitation, Electro-mobility Shift Assays (EMSA) and protein localization to identify where IRF3 and IRF3(5D) are inhibited by PLpro. Results: Here we show that PLpro also inhibits IRF3 activation at a step after phosphorylation and that this inhibition is dependent on the de-ubiquitination (DUB) activity of PLpro. We found that PLpro is able to block the type I IFN induction of a constitutively active IRF3, but does not inhibit IRF3 dimerization, nuclear localization or DNA binding. However, inhibition of PLpro?s DUB activity by mutagenesis blocked the IRF3 inhibition activity of PLpro, suggesting a role for IRF3 ubiquitination in induction of a type I IFN innate immune response. Conclusion: These results demonstrate an additional mechanism that PLpro is able to inhibit IRF3 signaling. These data suggest novel innate immune antagonism activities of PLpro that may contribute to SARS-CoV pathogenesis.
Background: Yunnan has one of the oldest and the most severe human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemics in China. We conducted an observational study to evaluate the human papillomavirus (HPV) genotype distribution in relation to cervical neoplastic disease risk among HIV-infected women in Yunnan. Methods: We screened 301 HIV-infected non-pregnant women in Mangshi prefecture in Yunnan province. All consenting participants underwent simultaneous and independent assessment by cervical cytology, colposcopy-histopathology, and HPV genotyping. Unadjusted and multivariable-adjusted multinomial logistic regression analysis was conducted to evaluate factors associated with single or multiple carcinogenic HPV genotypes. Results: HPV genotypes were present in 43.5% (131/301) overall, and carcinogenic HPV genotypes were present in 37.5% (113/301) women. Among women with carcinogenic HPV genotypes, 80 (70.8% of 113) had a single carcinogenic HPV type, while 33 (29.2%) women had multiple (2 or more) carcinogenic HPV types. Overall, the most common carcinogenic HPV types were HPV52 (7.3%), HPV58 (6.6%), HPV18 (6.3%), HPV16 (6.0%), and HPV33 (5.3%). In women with cervical precancerous lesions (i.e., high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions [HSIL] on cytology or cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grades 2 or worse [CIN2+] detected on colposcopy-histology), the most commonly detected genotypes were HPV16 (28.6%), HPV52 (25.0%), HPV58 (17.9%), HPV18 (10.7%) and HPV31 (10.7%). Increasing age was an independent risk factor associated with presence of single carcinogenic HPV types (adjusted odds ratio: 1.04, 95%CI: 1.01-1.07, p?=?0.012) but not with the presence of multiple carcinogenic types in the multivariable-adjusted models. Conclusions: As HIV-infected women continue to live longer on antiretroviral therapy in China, it will be increasingly important to screen for, and prevent, HPV-associated cervical cancer in this population, especially given the wide diversity and multiplicity of HPV genotypes.
Background: Millions of human infections caused by arthropod-borne pathogens are initiated by the feeding of an infected mosquito on a vertebrate. However, interactions between the viruses and the mosquito vector, which facilitates successful infection and transmission of virus to a subsequent vertebrate host, are still not fully understood.FindingHere we describe early chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infectious events in cells derived from one of the most important CHIKV vectors, Aedes albopictus. We demonstrated that CHIKV infection of mosquito cells depended on acidification of the endosome as indicated by significant inhibition following prophylactic treatment with the lysosomotropic drugs chloroquine, ammonium chloride, and monensin, which is consistent with observations in mammalian cells. While all three agents inhibited CHIKV infection in C6/36 cells, ammonium chloride was less toxic to cells than the other agents. Conclusion: The observation of similar mechanisms for inhibition of CHIKV infection in mosquito and mammalian cell lines suggests that conserved entry pathways are utilized by CHIKV for vertebrate and invertebrate cell types.
Background: In HIV-1 infected patients, production of interleukin-10 (IL-10), a highly immunosuppressive cytokine, is associated with progression of infection toward AIDS. HIV-1 Tat protein, by interacting with TLR4-MD2 at the membrane level, induces IL-10 production by primary human monocytes and macrophages. In the present study we evaluated the effect of the TLR4 antagonist Eritoran tetrasodium (E5564) on HIV-1 Tat-induced IL-10 production.FindingsHere, we confirm that the recombinant HIV-1 Tat protein and the GST-Tat 1–45 fusion protein efficiently stimulate IL-10 production by primary monocytes and macrophages and that this stimulation is inhibited by blocking anti-TLR4 mAbs. We show that a similar inhibition is observed by preincubating the cells with the TLR4 antagonist E5564. Conclusion: This study provides compelling data showing for the first time that the TLR4 antagonist E5564 inhibits the immunosuppressive cytokine IL-10 production by primary human monocytes and macrophages incubated in the presence of HIV-1 Tat protein.
Background: Xenotransplantation has drawn increased attention in recent years as a potential solution to the scarcity of human source donor organs. Researchers have highlighted the need to characterize the influence of porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERV) in xenotransplantation. Screening and analyzing the presence and subtype of PERV in donor source animal breeds could provide basic parameters to evaluate the biological safety of xenotransplantation from pigs to humans. We bred a new miniature porcine herd (XENO-1) after decades of investigation, the herd was purpose bred to produce a potential donor animal source for xenotransplantation. To this end we studied the animals? PERV expression characteristics. Methods: We randomly selected 37 animals of the herd, PCR and RT-PCR based on specific primers were utilized to determine their PERV viral subtype. High fidelity PCR and restriction enzyme digestion were employed for variants detection. To thoroughly understand the PERV expression pattern, quantitative PCR was applied to measure mRNA expression levels in different tissues, At last, transfection capacity was assessed using a in vitro co-culture system. Results: Our results revealed that the XENO-1 herd was free of PERV-C and exhibited low levels of PERVs in different tissues compared to commercial pig (landrace). The XENO-1 herd showed unique variants of A/B recombination. In addition, even though there were A/B variants in the XENO-1 herd, co-culturing revealed no evidence of PERV transmission from XENO-1 tissue to human cells. Conclusion: Overall, Our results displayed an unique PERV expression pattern in a new pig herd and demonstrated its non-transfection capacity in vitro. Data in the research indicate that XENO-1 animals can serve as a better potential donor source for xenotransplantation.
Background: The strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) can be divided into two distinct clades: class I and class II. At present, limited molecular epidemiological data are available for the class I virus at live bird markets (LBMs). Knowing the genomic and antigenic characteristics of class I NDVs might provide important insights into the evolution dynamics of these viruses. In this study class I NDVs isolated from LBMs in Eastern China between 2008 and 2012 were characterized. Results: We characterized 34 class I NDVs genetically and 15 of the 34 NDVs pathologically which originated from geese, chickens and ducks at live bird markets. Based on the older classification system, twelve of fourteen strains isolated from 2008 to 2010 belonged to sub-genotype 3b. However, the rest 22 strains formed a separate novel cluster in genotype 3, which was designated as sub-genotype 3c. When based on the new classification system, sub-genotype 3b was classified into sub-genotype 1a and the sub-genotype 3c was classified into sub-genotype 1b. Over 62% (21/34) of the viruses were chicken-origin and only 13 isolates were waterfowl-origin. The Cross-neutralization reactions between CK/JS/05/11, CK/JS/06/12 and the vaccine strain LaSota showed significant antigenic differences between them. Conclusions: Currently, sub-genotype 3c (or 1b) NDVs are the most frequently isolated classI strains at LBMs in Eastern China., and the class I NDVs has transferred from waterfowls to chickens and circulated in chicken flocks extensively.
Mink enteritis virus (MEV) is one of the most important pathogens in the mink industry. Recent studies have shed light into the role of microRNAs (miRNAs), small noncoding RNAs of length ranging from 18–23 nucleotides (nt), as critical modulators in the host-pathogen interaction networks. We previously showed that miRNA miR-181b can inhibit MEV replication by repression of viral non-structural protein 1 expression. Here, we report that two other miRNAs (miR-320a and miR-140) inhibit MEV entry into feline kidney (F81) cells by downregulating its receptor, transferrin receptor (TfR), by targeting the 3′ untranslated region (UTR) of TfR mRNA, while being themselves upregulated.