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Table of Contents for this page:

  • Current Issue
  • Advanced Online Publications Articles

  • Current Issue of Nature Structural and Molecular Biology

    Nature Structural aamp; Molecular Biology - Issue - nature.com science feeds

  • More end resection is not merrier

  • Unrestrained 53BP1 activity causes fusions of dysfunctional telomeres and embryonic lethality associated with misrepair of DNA double-strand breaks in BRCA1-deficient mice. However, the physiological role of 53BP1 remains unclear, because it presumably did not evolve to carry out these pathological functions. A new report proposes that 53BP1 activity prevents hyper-resection and thereby promotes error-free DNA repair while suppressing alternative mutagenic pathways.

  • A route to new cancer therapies: the FA pathway is essential in BRCA1- or BRCA2-deficient cells

  • Mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes strongly predispose carriers to breast and ovarian cancers. Two new studies reveal that FANCD2, a key component of the Fanconi anemia pathway, is essential for the survival of cells with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations. These findings pave the way for new 'synthetic lethal' strategies to kill BRCA-mutated cancers.

  • Catch me if you can: trapping scanning ribosomes in their footsteps

  • Ribosome profiling provides a snapshot of the mRNA positions of all elongating ribosomes in the cell. A new powerful enhancement of the technique, translation complex profile sequencing (TCP–seq), extends this mapping to scanning ribosomal complexes. In addition to its usefulness as a tool for studying the regulation of translation initiation, TCP–seq provides specific and powerful signatures of bona fide translation.

  • The bicoid mRNA localization factor Exuperantia is an RNA-binding pseudonuclease

  • The crystal structure of the putative exonuclease Exuperantia, required for Drosophila anterior patterning, reveals an EXO-SAM-like domain architecture that is catalytically inactive but mediates dimerization and RNA binding, which are essential for bicoid localization.

  • 53BP1 fosters fidelity of homology-directed DNA repair

  • A new study reveals that 53BP1 influences high-fidelity homology-directed repair by showing that its depletion in the presence of increasing DNA-damage levels triggers a shift from RAD51-dependent gene conversion, an error-free process, to RAD52-mediated single-strand annealing, which is mutagenic.

  • Structure of chromatin remodeler Swi2/Snf2 in the resting state

  • Structural and functional analysis of the Swi2/Snf2 remodeler demonstrates that the catalytic core of the protein is a competent remodeling machine, which rests in an inactive conformation poised for activation.

  • Neddylation requires glycyl-tRNA synthetase to protect activated E2

  • Biochemical, structural and cell-based analyses reveal a chaperone-like function of glycyl-tRNA synthetase, which supports neddylation via direct interactions with NEDD8, E1 and E2.

  • Free backbone carbonyls mediate rhodopsin activation

  • Solid-state NMR analyses reveal that the free backbone carbonyl groups associated with proline residues in the transmembrane helices play a key role in mediating rhodopsin activation.

  • Lipids modulate the conformational dynamics of a secondary multidrug transporter

  • EPR spectroscopy analyses elucidate how lipids affect the conformational dynamics of a multidrug secondary transporter, LmrP, and indicate a key role of the lipid headgroups in shaping the conformational-energy landscape of the transporter.

  • Structure of the NS3 helicase from Zika virus

  • A crystal structure of the Zika virus NS3 RNA helicase reveals similarities to the RNA helicase from Dengue virus, with variability in loops typically involved in binding ATP and RNA, and aids in identification of potentially druggable hotspots.

  • FANCD2 limits replication stress and genome instability in cells lacking BRCA2

  • Probing the synthetic lethal effect of FANCD2 deletion in BRCA2-deficient cells reveals independent roles of FANCD2 and BRCA2 in stabilizing stalled replication forks to maintain genome stability and promote cell survival.

  • Molecular architecture of the complete COG tethering complex

  • The complete architecture of the yeast COG tethering complex is revealed by negative-stain electron microscopy, showing an intricate shape with up to five flexible legs.

  • CATCHR, HOPS and CORVET tethering complexes share a similar architecture

  • Electron microscopy analyses of tethering complexes from different families, GARP and HOPS, show that they share a similar architecture featuring long flexible legs. The findings suggest that multisubunit tethering complexes use related structural frameworks to accomplish their functions.

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    Nature -Advance Online Publications

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    Nature Structural aamp; Molecular Biology - AOP - nature.com science feeds

  • An accurately preorganized IRES RNA structure enables eIF4G capture for initiation of viral translation

  • The solution structure of the J-K region of the EMCV IRES establishes a preorganized recognition mode for hijacking translation initiation factor 4G.

  • Structure of a pathogen effector reveals the enzymatic mechanism of a novel acetyltransferase family

  • Structural and functional analyses of HopZ1a, a member of the YopJ family of bacterial type III–secreted effectors, reveal the structural basis of YopJ effectors’ noncanonical acetyltransferase activity and allosteric regulation by inositol hexakisphosphate.

  • Cryomicroscopy provides structural snapshots of influenza virus membrane fusion

  • Cryo-EM and tomography imaging of influenza virus fusion with target membranes reveal structural intermediates of HA surface glycoprotein and their interactions with membranes as well as ultrastructural changes in the virus that accompany membrane fusion.

  • One-way membrane trafficking of SOS in receptor-triggered Ras activation

  • Analyses in supported lipid bilayers and in cells shed light on the roles of multiple SOS-membrane interactions in SOS's membrane recruitment and association, processive activation of Ras and signal attenuation.

  • Iterative structure-based improvement of a fusion-glycoprotein vaccine against RSV

  • An interactive structure-based approach was used to improve a vaccine antigen against respiratory syncytium virus (RSV), thus leading to immunogens with higher stability that elicit higher neutralizing titers in mice.

  • Clathrin-coat disassembly illuminates the mechanisms of Hsp70 force generation

  • Light-scattering kinetics and atomic force and electron microscopy analyses show that Hsp70-mediated disassembly of clathrin cages occurs via a collision-pressure mechanism consistent with the entropic pulling model.

  • Spiral architecture of the Hsp104 disaggregase reveals the basis for polypeptide translocation

  • A cryo-EM structure of yeast AAA+ protein disaggregase Hsp104 with AMP-PNP reveals a spiral arrangement of the protomers and a continuous path for polypeptide translocation that explains Hsp104's processivity mechanism during disaggregation.

  • m1A and m1G disrupt A-RNA structure through the intrinsic instability of Hoogsteen base pairs

  • The inability of A-form RNA to form Hoogsteen base pairs provides a mechanism for how post-transcriptional modifications can disrupt RNA structure and might help explain why DNA is the molecular choice for storing genetic information.

  • Structural basis for tRNA modification by Elp3 from Dehalococcoides mccartyi

  • The eukaryotic Elongator complex participates in modification of uridines in tRNAs. Structural and functional work on a bacterial Elp3, the catalytic subunit of Elongator, provides insight into the function and mechanism of this important enzyme.

  • Skp is a multivalent chaperone of outer-membrane proteins

  • Mass spectrometry, kinetics studies and in silico analyses indicate that multiple copies of the Skp chaperone are required for sequestration of 16-stranded or larger OMPs and prevention of their aggregation.

  • An atomic structure of the human 26S proteasome

  • A cryo-EM structure of the human 26S proteasome in a resting state at an average resolution of 3.5Å reveals details in the interactions between subunits. An additional structure of the proteasome with USP14 bound suggests a mechanism for its activation.

  • Extended surface for membrane association in Zika virus NS1 structure

  • The crystal structure of full-length NS1 protein from Zika virus reveals an extended surface for membrane association and a highly variable polar surface.

  • Structural basis of Cas3 inhibition by the bacteriophage protein AcrF3

  • The crystal structure of the phage anti-CRISPR protein AcrF3 in complex with Cas3 reveals its mode of inhibition of the CRISPR–Cas bacterial immune system.
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