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Table of Contents for this page:

  • Current Issue
  • Advanced Online Publications Articles

  • Current Issue of Nature Structural and Molecular Biology

    Nature Structural aamp; Molecular Biology - Issue - nature.com science feeds

  • Say it with proteins: an alphabet of crystal structures

  • A little less leads to lots more

  • Mammalian cells have both cytoplasmic and mitochondrial ribosomes, which have long been considered to operate completely independently. However, a new report shows that after heat shock, MRPL18, a human mitochondrial ribosomal protein, binds to cytoplasmic ribosomes to influence translation of heat-shock mRNAs.

  • Light-driven Na+ pumps as next-generation inhibitory optogenetic tools

  • The first structures of a light-driven sodium pump provide insight into the mechanism of ion transport and selectivity. Genetic manipulation of rat neuronal cells and of Caenorhabditis elegans worms demonstrates the utility of such pumps for optogenetic applications.

  • A bumpy road for RNA polymerase II

  • The identification of a second regulatory checkpoint controlling RNA polymerase II elongation near the poly(A) site of protein-coding genes reveals an additional level of complexity in the modulation of eukaryotic transcriptional elongation and termination.

  • Integrin bondage: filamin takes control

  • Regulation of integrin activity is critical for human health, and the steps mediating integrin activation are well established. In contrast, the counteracting mechanisms of inactivation are less understood. An integrin inhibitor, filamin, is shown to stabilize the integrin resting state by bondage of the cytoplasmic domains of the integrin heterodimer, thus providing evidence of a new mechanism for integrin retention in the inactive state.

  • A molecular syringe that kills cells

  • R-type pyocins, produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, are sheath-tube nanomachines that puncture the envelopes of target cells, inducing their death. Cryo-EM studies reveal the atomic structures of the pyocin R2 in its extended precontraction and postcontraction forms, which suggest a mechanism for the contraction process of this molecular syringe.

  • Dynactin revealed

  • Dynactin is an essential cofactor for the microtubule-based motor cytoplasmic dynein. Two recent papers report structures obtained by cryo-EM of dynactin, the dynein–dynactin complex and dynein–dynactin bound to its track, the microtubule.

  • A barrier-breaking resolution

  • The yin and yang of eIF3

  • Mammalian mitoribosomes revealed

  • SETX attenuates antiviral transcription

  • PRESTO-Tango as an open-source resource for interrogation of the druggable human GPCRome

  • Roth and colleagues have developed PRESTO-Tango, a new open-source platform for high-throughput screening of the entire human nonolfactory GPCRome, and they show how it can be used to identify new ligands for orphan human GPCRs.

  • A lncRNA regulates alternative splicing via establishment of a splicing-specific chromatin signature

  • The evolutionarily conserved antisense long noncoding RNA asFGFR2 influences cell type–specific alternative-splicing patterns of FGFR2 by recruiting chromatin modifiers to the locus.

  • Atomic structures of a bactericidal contractile nanotube in its pre- and postcontraction states

  • Cryo-EM structures of the pre- and postcontraction states of Pseudomonas aeruginosa R-type pyocins provide details of the conformational changes between the tube and sheath that take place during contraction.

  • Structural mechanism of integrin inactivation by filamin

  • The integrin inhibitor filamin competes with activators for integrin binding, but an NMR structural analysis now reveals that filamin also functions by stabilizing integrin in its resting state.

  • Crystal structure of a light-driven sodium pump

  • Crystal structures of the microbial rhodopsin KR2, a recently discovered light-driven sodium pump, reveal the translocation pathway of sodium ions and shed light on the molecular mechanism of ion pumping.

  • CDK9 inhibitors define elongation checkpoints at both ends of RNA polymerase II–transcribed genes

  • Genome-wide mapping of CDK9-dependent transcription-elongation checkpoints reveals an unexpected control point near the poly(A) site of pol II–transcribed human genes.

  • Translational control of the cytosolic stress response by mitochondrial ribosomal protein L18

  • A stress-induced cytosolic isoform of the mitochondrial ribosomal protein MRPL18 facilitates the specific translation of heat-shock proteins during the general shutdown of protein synthesis that occurs in response to cellular stress.

  • Subunit asymmetry and roles of conformational switching in the hexameric AAA+ ring of ClpX

  • The hexameric ClpX AAA+ ATPase requires subunit asymmetry and switching between nucleotide-loadable and nucleotide-unloadable conformations for cooperative ATP hydrolysis and efficient substrate binding, unfolding and degradation.

  • Notch is a direct negative regulator of the DNA-damage response

  • Assays in both C. elegans and human cells show that Notch interacts with ATM kinase to inhibit the DNA-damage response and that Notch activity is inversely correlated with ATM activation in breast cancer cells.

  • Atomic structure of the Y complex of the nuclear pore

  • Solving the crystal structure of the Y-complex hub allowed Schwartz and colleagues to assemble a high-resolution composite structure of the complete Y complex, one of the principal nuclear pore complex scaffolds.

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    Nature -Advance Online Publications

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    Nature Structural aamp; Molecular Biology - AOP - nature.com science feeds

  • Structure of the Vif-binding domain of the antiviral enzyme APOBEC3G

  • Evolution- and structure-guided mutagenesis allows elucidation of the solution NMR structure of the N-terminal domain of A3G. Mapping of HIV-1 Vif binding to the A3G NTD reveals an interaction interface distinct from those in other APOBEC3 proteins.

  • The mechanism of inhibition of protein synthesis by the proline-rich peptide oncocin

  • The crystal structure of the of thermophilic 70S ribosome bound to antimicrobial peptide Onc112 reveals that the peptide interacts with three adjacent functional sites in the ribosome.

  • The proline-rich antimicrobial peptide Onc112 inhibits translation by blocking and destabilizing the initiation complex

  • Structural and biochemistry studies reveal how the antimicrobial peptide Onc112 binds to bacterial ribosomes and show that Onc112 blocks and destabilizes the translation-initiation complex.

  • A dynamic DNA-repair complex observed by correlative single-molecule nanomanipulation and fluorescence

  • Single-molecule imaging reveals how stalled Escherichia coli RNA polymerase is displaced by the superfamily 2 DNA translocase (SF2) repair factor Mfd to permit transcription-coupled DNA repair.

  • Cryptochrome 1 regulates the circadian clock through dynamic interactions with the BMAL1 C terminus

  • The mammalian circadian cycle is determined by sequential activation of clock target-gene expression by CLOCK–BMAL and subsequent repression by CRY. Biochemical and NMR data now show that Cry1 competes with coactivators for binding to the BMAL1 transcriptional-activation domain to regulate circadian cycling.

  • Repulsive guidance molecule is a structural bridge between neogenin and bone morphogenetic protein

  • Structural and functional analyses reveal how human repulsive-guidance-molecule glycoproteins activate bone morphogenic protein (BMP) signaling and physically link the latter to the neogenin pathway.

  • Aβ(1–42) fibril structure illuminates self-recognition and replication of amyloid in Alzheimer's disease

  • Aβ(1–42) is the most pathogenic amyloid-β species in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The solid-state NMR–based atomic model of an Aβ(1–42) fibril elucidates the mechanism of fibril formation and propagation in AD and other amyloid diseases.

  • Vps4 disassembles an ESCRT-III filament by global unfolding and processive translocation

  • HDX-MS and cross-linking analyses by Hurley and colleagues reveal that the AAA+ ATPase Vps4 disassembles a substrate by global unfolding and translocation through its central pore, in a mechanism reminiscent of that of the unfoldase ClpX.

  • PRESTO-Tango as an open-source resource for interrogation of the druggable human GPCRome

  • Roth and colleagues have developed PRESTO-Tango, a new open-source platform for high-throughput screening of the entire human nonolfactory GPCRome, and they show how it can be used to identify new ligands for orphan human GPCRs.

  • Notch is a direct negative regulator of the DNA-damage response

  • Assays in both C. elegans and human cells show that Notch interacts with ATM kinase to inhibit the DNA-damage response and that Notch activity is inversely correlated with ATM activation in breast cancer cells.

  • Subunit asymmetry and roles of conformational switching in the hexameric AAA+ ring of ClpX

  • The hexameric ClpX AAA+ ATPase requires subunit asymmetry and switching between nucleotide-loadable and nucleotide-unloadable conformations for cooperative ATP hydrolysis and efficient substrate binding, unfolding and degradation.

  • Translational control of the cytosolic stress response by mitochondrial ribosomal protein L18

  • A stress-induced cytosolic isoform of the mitochondrial ribosomal protein MRPL18 facilitates the specific translation of heat-shock proteins during the general shutdown of protein synthesis that occurs in response to cellular stress.

  • A lncRNA regulates alternative splicing via establishment of a splicing-specific chromatin signature

  • The evolutionarily conserved antisense long noncoding RNA asFGFR2 influences cell type–specific alternative-splicing patterns of FGFR2 by recruiting chromatin modifiers to the locus.

  • Crystal structure of a light-driven sodium pump

  • Crystal structures of the microbial rhodopsin KR2, a recently discovered light-driven sodium pump, reveal the translocation pathway of sodium ions and shed light on the molecular mechanism of ion pumping.

  • CDK9 inhibitors define elongation checkpoints at both ends of RNA polymerase II–transcribed genes

  • Genome-wide mapping of CDK9-dependent transcription-elongation checkpoints reveals an unexpected control point near the poly(A) site of pol II–transcribed human genes.

  • Structural mechanism of integrin inactivation by filamin

  • The integrin inhibitor filamin competes with activators for integrin binding, but an NMR structural analysis now reveals that filamin also functions by stabilizing integrin in its resting state.

  • Atomic structures of a bactericidal contractile nanotube in its pre- and postcontraction states

  • Cryo-EM structures of the pre- and postcontraction states of Pseudomonas aeruginosa R-type pyocins provide details of the conformational changes between the tube and sheath that take place during contraction.

  • Atomic structure of the Y complex of the nuclear pore

  • Solving the crystal structure of the Y-complex hub allowed Schwartz and colleagues to assemble a high-resolution composite structure of the complete Y complex, one of the principal nuclear pore complex scaffolds.

  • X-ray structures of Drosophila dopamine transporter in complex with nisoxetine and reboxetine

  • Crystal structures of the Drosophila melanogaster dopamine transporter dDAT in complex with inhibitors reboxetine and nisoxetine shed light on the molecular basis of antidepressant selectivity and specificity.
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