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Table of Contents for this page:

  • Current Issue
  • Advanced Online Publications Articles

  • Current Issue of Nature Structural and Molecular Biology

    Nature Structural aamp; Molecular Biology

  • Anna Tramontano 1957–2017

  • Carb cutting works better with a partner

  • O-GlcNAc is a reversible post-translational modification that is added by O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) and removed by O-GlcNAcase (OGA). OGA is emerging as a therapeutic target for multiple diseases, but its structure has been elusive until now.

  • Splicing of Ezh1 gets muscle out of stressful situations

  • As cells undergo terminal differentiation, the composition of Polycomb-repressive complex 2 (PRC2) changes and the histone H3K27 methyltransferase Ezh2 is progressively replaced by its homolog Ezh1. By identifying an enzymatically inactive splice variant of Ezh1 that is sensitive to cellular stress, Bodega et al. now demonstrate that PRC2–Ezh1 has an essential role in establishing an altered gene expression program required for postmitotic muscle cells to adapt to environmental changes.

  • Capturing heterogeneity: single-cell structures of the 3D genome

  • One of the striking features of cells seen through a microscope is the heterogeneous organization of the nuclei. A combination of molecular methods and computational modeling has now been used to reconstruct accurate 3D structures of the genome inside single nuclei.

  • DNA–RNA hybrids: the risks of DNA breakage during transcription

  • In this Perspective, the authors consider how DNA breaks stimulate R-loop formation, particularly within actively transcribed genomic regions, and discuss the cellular mechanisms that prevent or remove RNA–DNA hybrids to preserve genome integrity.

  • A cytosolic Ezh1 isoform modulates a PRC2–Ezh1 epigenetic adaptive response in postmitotic cells

  • A cytosolic isoform of Ezh1 that lacks the catalytic domain controls nuclear PRC2 activity in response to atrophic oxidative stress in skeletal muscle cells by trapping Eed in the cytoplasm.

  • Structure of the 40S–ABCE1 post-splitting complex in ribosome recycling and translation initiation

  • Cryo-EM structures of the yeast 40S in complex with ribosome-splitting protein ABCE1, along with functional analyses, reveal that the FeS cluster domain undergoes a 150° rotation to dissociate ribosomal subunits.

  • Intraflagellar transport dynein is autoinhibited by trapping of its mechanical and track-binding elements

  • Molecular motor dynein-2, involved in retrograde intraflagellar transport, adopts an autoinhibited conformation, in which the mechanical linker and track-binding stalk are trapped via a newly described motor–motor interface.

  • Structural basis for lipopolysaccharide extraction by ABC transporter LptB2FG

  • The crystal structure of LptB2FG, an ABC transporter that extracts LPS from the bacterial inner membrane and transports it to the outer membrane, indicates a transport mechanism distinct from classical ABC transporters.

  • Parkin–phosphoubiquitin complex reveals cryptic ubiquitin-binding site required for RBR ligase activity

  • The human RBR E3 ligase Parkin is captured in complex with phosphoubiquitin, revealing a cryptic ubiquitin-binding site and indicating a mechanism of cooperation between RBR modules for activation.

  • An orthogonal single-molecule experiment reveals multiple-attempt dynamics of type IA topoisomerases

  • A novel combination of magnetic tweezers and single-molecule TIRF microscopy reveals that topoisomerase IA makes multiple attempts to engage DNA before successfully catalyzing strand passage and DNA relaxation.

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    Nature -Advance Online Publications

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    Nature Structural aamp; Molecular Biology

  • 5-Formylcytosine does not change the global structure of DNA

  • X-ray crystallography and NMR analysis demonstrate that, contrary to previous observations, fC does not significantly alter DNA structure, thus suggesting an alternative basis for recognition of fC-DNA by epigenome-modifying enzymes.

  • The myosin mesa and the basis of hypercontractility caused by hypertrophic cardiomyopathy mutations

  • A working model forβ-cardiac myosin in the sequestered state and binding assays reveal interactions between the myosin head and tail that are disrupted by mutations associated with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

  • Human CTP synthase filament structure reveals the active enzyme conformation

  • The human enzyme CTP synthase forms polymeric filaments with increased catalytic activity, in contrast to the inactive filaments formed by bacterial CTP synthase. Cryo-EM and crystallographic analyses explain the structural bases for those different behaviors.

  • Active and poised promoter states drive folding of the extended HoxB locus in mouse embryonic stem cells

  • Homotypic interactions between active and Polycomb-repressed promoters co-occurring in the same DNA fiber, rather than CTCF occupancy, explain the 3D HoxB folding pattern.

  • ADAR1 controls apoptosis of stressed cells by inhibiting Staufen1-mediated mRNA decay

  • In stressed cells, the ADAR1p110 isoform is phosphorylated and translocated from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, where it protects transcripts with 3′-UTR dsRNA structures from Staufen1-mediated decay, thus suppressing cellular apoptosis.

  • A MILI-independent piRNA biogenesis pathway empowers partial germline reprogramming

  • MILI-mediated piRNA processing and amplification is not essential for all MIWI2 male germline reprogramming activity, indicating the existence of a MILI-independent piRNA biogenesis pathway.
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